Telegraph and tabulation
After the battery was invented, people began using electricity to do things like discover new elements and create new and better materials. Meanwhile, the punch card became a way to record information so that a machine could read and write it. Companies such as IBM were founded to keep track of it all. Wires stretched around the world to send messages fast enough to coordinate the new railroads, and new machines were invented to read and write faster than any human operators could manage.
Here’s an explanation of electrolysis—the use of electric power to tease chemicals apart.
Here’s a quick explanation of baud rate.